Enlightenment and Revolution (02:22)
The beheading of Louis XVI was a turning point from absolute monarchy; the age of Enlightenment began. This calm age of reason turned into the age of revolution. (Credits)
Italy in 1600s (03:14)
In the early 17th century, Italy teemed with economic and intellectual activity. In 1609, Galileo launched a scientific revolution. He perfected the telescope which supported Copernicus' claims.
Galileo Recants (03:00)
Galileo's fame spread throughout Europe during the height of the Counter-Reformation. The Inquisition forced Galileo to recant.
European Intellectual Climate (01:04)
Galileo was silenced in Europe's Catholic South but his work spread north to Protestant countries. Thinkers throughout Europe had to be weary of absolute monarchs.
Absolutism in India (02:11)
Muslim Moghul emperors dominated India, allowing greater intellectual freedom than Europe's monarchs. Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in tribute to his wife.
Aurangzeb Seizes Power (02:24)
Aurangzeb sought to prevent his brother Dara from succeeding Shah Jahan and imposing Islam throughout India. He imprisoned Shah Jahan and presented him with Dara's head.
Aurangzeb's Rule (02:18)
Aurangzeb imposed harsh Islamic rule, destroying Hindu temples, suppressing art, scholarship, music, and dancing. His expansionism nearly bankrupted the Empire.
British and American Liberty (01:29)
Britain ended absolute monarchy and came to pride themselves on liberty. The American colonies, not represented in Parliament, grew dissatisfied.
Fight for Liberty (01:45)
Americans resented London Parliament taxes. Samuel Adams sought to prevent a tea shipment from being brought ashore.
Boston Tea Party (02:28)
In 1773, the Massachusetts governor refused to let the Dartmouth leave the harbor. Samuel Adams' mob dumped the tea in the harbor.
American Founding (02:00)
The American colonies won independence, allowing them to create a new kind of government. The Declaration of Independence was based on Enlightenment ideas.
Background of French Revolution (02:05)
Louis XVI funded the American Revolution, bringing the financial collapse of his regime. He summoned representatives of the common people, sparking revolution. The mob stormed the Bastille.
French Revolutionary Movement (01:06)
Shopkeepers, journalists and lawyers led the French Revolution. Revolutionaries abolished the aristocracy, attacked the Catholic Church, and proclaimed the rights of man.
Louis XVI Attempts Escape (01:58)
Louis XVI sought help from fellow absolute rulers and escaped Paris. A local postmaster caught him and he was returned to Paris where he was found guilty of treason.
The guillotine was a product of revolutionary ideals. Louis's fellow monarchs encircled France after his execution.
Revolution Breeds Terror (02:56)
"Left" and "right" factions fought in Assembly. Jacobin ideals led to the Terror. Napoleon took over, ending the Revolution and bringing back absolute power.
Aborigines and Captain Cook (01:47)
Aborigines lived in Australia for 50,000 years. Captain Cook claimed Australia for Britain, seeing Aborigines as noble savages.
British Convicts, Australia and Aborigines (02:01)
Britain sent prisoners to Australia, an Enlightenment project designed as an alternative to hanging. Capt. Arthur Phillip, first governor of Australia, was benevolent toward aborigines.
Unable to persuade the aborigines to make contact with him, Capt. Phillip kidnapped Bennelong and taught him English so he could interpret for him; each taught the other his culture.
Bennelong and Capt. Phillip (01:29)
Bennelong agreed to return, but Aboriginal custom demanded revenge; they speared Capt. Phillip. Phillip did not retaliate and Bennelong returned to the British settlement.
British and Aborigines (01:30)
After Bennelong, many aborigines came to the British settlement. However, many became addicted to alcohol and the British eventually took Aboriginal lands.
Atlantic Slave Trade (02:18)
Cheap land in the Americas fueled the Atlantic slave trade. Europeans increasingly saw moral objections, but slavery seemed entrenched.
Haitian Revolution (02:51)
The French Revolution inspired Haitian slaves to revolt, which they arranged at a voodoo ceremony. Debate broke out in France, but the French backed their plantation owners.
Legacy of Haitian Revolution (02:33)
Toussaint Louverture ended Haitian slavery before being abducted. Other countries abolished the slave trade after Haitian independence. The U.S. and France isolated Haiti economically, causing poverty.
Smallpox Inoculation (02:26)
There was more to the Enlightenment than politics. Edward Jenner, age 8, was inoculated for smallpox- a risky procedure known since ancient times.
World's First Vaccination (02:52)
Edward Jenner researched cowpox folk wisdom. He tested his small box theory in 1796. Edward created an effective vaccine.
Edward Jenner's Legacy (01:37)
Jenner's smallpox vaccine illustrates how the Enlightenment sparked progress independent from the political battles it created.
Credits: Revolution: History of the World (00:29)
Credits: Revolution: History of the World
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