First Day of Remembrance: Seattle, 1978 (01:06)
A large group gathers to remember the Japanese internment camps and honor the first-generation that endured the conditions. The day marks a turning point for the Japanese American community.
Targeting Citizens (04:51)
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor in 1941. The FBI raids the West Coast homes of Japanese Americans and places men in military camps. Experts discuss segregation and racism. Newspapers call for Japanese American relocation or incarceration. Banks freeze accounts and officials institute a curfew.
Executive Order 9066 (02:53)
President Roosevelt signs the order in February 1942. Gen. John DeWitt designates the West Coast a military exclusion zone and orders anyone of Japanese ancestry out of the area. F.D.R. sends Curtis Munson to investigate; he concludes there is no "Japanese problem" on the coast.
Japanese American Internment (04:19)
Bainbridge Island residents are the first people forced from their homes and incarcerated; they initially go to Manzanar. Experts discuss the use of euphemisms. The government releases propaganda films as the military forcibly removes West Coast residents.
Detention Centers (04:52)
Japanese Americans can only take what they can carry, and many sell their belongings for cheap. Officials send Seattle area residents to the Puyallup fairgrounds; residents receive numbers upon their arrival. Similar events occur in Portland, Oregon. Officials send babies to the children's village in Manzanar.
Constitutional Violations (05:32)
Min Yasui, Gordon Hirabayashi, and Fred Korematsu challenge the government's actions in court. Officials order the transport of Japanese Americans to concentration camps across the west and south; most from the Pacific Northwest arrive at Minidoka. Survivors reflect on psychological damage.
Pioneering Spirit and Allegiance (05:40)
The Issei (and older Nisei) try to make Minidoka a livable community. The camp functions primarily on the low wage labor of the incarcerated. In 1943, Roosevelt announces the 442nd combat unit and the government issues a loyalty questionnaire; two questions cause confusion and frustration.
Nisei Recruitment (03:44)
Army officials seek volunteers, causing conflict between parents and sons. In 1944, the military reinstates the draft and inductees are assigned to the 442nd or MIS; the military sends resistors to McNeil Island. The 442nd becomes a highly decorated unit.
Japanese American Release (03:40)
Those leaving camp are encouraged to resettle in the Midwest, South, and East Coast. The army rescinds the West Coast exclusion order in January 1945. Citizens encounter discrimination in outside communities; Bainbridge Island, WA and Juneau, AK are places of exception.
Post WWII (06:17)
Anti-Japanese racism is widespread throughout the West Coast. The government's demand for proof of loyalty fractures the Japanese American community. Survivors reflect on trauma.
Price of Silence (05:24)
Many Nisei die early. Survivors reflect on denying their culture. The Sansei seek justice, and the Redress Movement gives the community a voice. President Carter’s commission investigates the internment. President Reagan signs the Civil Liberties Act. Three presidents sign apology letters; survivors receive reparations.
Moral Responsibility (06:14)
Mike Ishii recalls 9/11. The Japanese American community stands with others who are targeted based on race, religion, and immigration status. Events today parallel the scapegoating and targeting of Japanese Americans.
Credits: Betrayed: Surviving an American Concentration Camp (00:56)
Credits: Betrayed: Surviving an American Concentration Camp
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