Crete: a Commercial Center (05:06)
Byzantium, Greek, Roman, Venetian, Ottoman, and Minoan Empires occupied Crete. Monuments and fortresses included the Koules, Heraklion, Knossos, and a mosque. The Venetians used the island to control trading routes across the Mediterranean Sea; forts protected ships in the harbors.
Venetian Occupation (03:05)
City Squares and Loggias were administrative centers. Doges, elected for life, appointed an administrative leader to the seven regions of Crete. The Church of St. Titus was rebuilt into a Roman Catholic Church.
Cultural Influence (01:53)
El Greco was born near a small village near Heraklion and became a painter for the Royal Spanish court. Rethymno established a painting school for local artists. Fashion and cooking flourished.
Ottoman Invasion (04:01)
The Turks seized Rethymno and most of Crete; Heraklion remained the only Venetian-occupied city. A siege lasted 21 years until Köprülü Fazil Ahmed assumed control of the Ottoman Empire. Venetians fled to Gramvousa.
Ottoman Occupation (05:43)
The Ottomans converted St. Titus into a mosque and modernized Venetian buildings. During the 19th century, 400 Christian rebellions occurred; Hatzimichalis Dalianis captured the fortress at Frangokastello.
End of Occupation (05:57)
Turks began leaving the island; Greek Independence occurred in 1898. Most of the "Turko-Cretans" spoke Greek. The minaret at the fortress of Rethymnon's mosque was destroyed; St. Titus once again became a Catholic church.
Credits: Ottomans vs. Venetians: The Battle for Crete (00:39)
Credits: Ottomans vs. Venetians: The Battle for Crete
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