Jumping Ability (04:10)
Frogs moved onto land three million years ago. In the sitting position muscles contract, stretching elastic tendons and creating stored energy; the energy is released when they leap. Some species have foot webbings specially adapted for gliding and water skimming.
Frog Communication (05:14)
Early amphibians develop croaking calls; many amplify sounds with cheek or throat resonators. The Gliding Leaf female chooses a mate by listening for the loudest male. Golden Panamas wave to each other, signaling fighting or breeding intent.
Frog Reproduction (03:25)
African Bullfrog males fight for mating privileges. Madagascar brown frog males change their skin color to differentiate between genders during mass breeding rituals.
Frog Offspring (07:04)
Over six weeks, tadpoles transform into froglets; breathing gills disappear, intestines restructure, backbones grow, and tails shrink. Strawberry Poison Dart frogs transfer their babies to treetop bromeliad pools. Madagascar Tree Frogs lay eggs on leaves.
Frog Fathers (04:40)
A male Midwife Toad squeezes a female to release her eggs. After fertilization, he transfers them to his legs. African Bullfrogs appoint a male to defend communal broods. Male Darwin's Frogs keep clutches in their throats until they develop.
Frog Gestation (02:06)
South American Surinam Toads produce 100 egg clutches. Males position eggs onto the females' backs. Her skin swells around them and a membrane closes over top until they hatch as tadpoles. A relative species releases fully formed froglets from their backsides.
Sensory Adaptations (03:17)
Extendable tongues help frogs catch insects; they have teeth for gripping prey. Eyes aid digestion and allow 360 degree vision. Transparent third eyelids are used while swimming.
Animal Adaptation (02:37)
Toe pads with large surface areas allow Red Eye Tree Frogs to expertly climb trees. Waterfall Toads avoid predators by free falling out of range, gripping branches on the plummet down.
Frog Defenses (03:34)
Pebble Toads live on wet mountain rocks, escaping tarantula ambushes by tensing muscles and bouncing out of range. Darwin's Frogs use camouflage to avoid predators. The bright colors of Poison Dart frogs inform potential attackers of fatal toxicity levels.
Frog Skin (04:46)
The sensitive skin absorbs water and oxygen; permeability is problematic, and large populations have been lost from pesticides, climate change, and habitat loss. Chytrid fungus causes heart failure, leading to the extinction and endangerment of multiple species.
Extreme Living Conditions (05:25)
Amphibians have adapted to various habitats. Spadefoot Toads emerge from the Australian desert after rainfall, feeding and breeding before the morning sun evaporates waters. The Wood Frog forms ice on its skin during winter, and enters suspended animation until spring.
Credits: Attenborough's Fabulous Frogs (00:30)
Credits: Attenborough's Fabulous Frogs
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