Counselor/Client Relationship (02:53)
One approach to psychotherapy assumes the individual has an internal capacity for growth. B.F. Skinner argues that counselors should create environments conducive to change without imposing personal values on the client.
Counseling Student Behavioral Changes (02:50)
Skinner discusses how cultural values determine educational policy. He has not seen evidence the free school approach facilitates creativity development. Counselors use techniques to mold disruptive children to the school's values.
Counselors as Environmental Engineers (05:24)
Skinner says counselors should predict cultural survival challenges and determine under what conditions people will work productively to arrive at standards which are value judgments. Students should receive positive reinforcement, rather than aversive control, to feel greater freedom.
Supporting a Positive Reinforcement System (02:59)
Skinner encourages counselors to ask clients to do things that will motivate them to develop themselves and generate a sense of freedom. He argues for reinforcing the right behavior, rather than punishing wrongdoing.
Personal Responsibility (01:26)
Skinner argues that genetics and environmental history are responsible for actions. Using the concept of responsibility to punish bad behavior and reward good behavior is a social management technique.
Addressing Client Needs (02:32)
Individuals come to counseling with problems manifesting as feelings. Counselors should change the individual's root problem, not their feeling.
Changing Behavior (04:40)
Skinner argues that an individual's social environment must change for their behavior to change. Depression may be due to a lack of positive reinforcement. Counselors may suggest a job or housing change.
Counselor as Reinforcer (02:49)
Counselors help clients rearrange contingencies of reinforcement in their lives by building an artificial social environment in the counselor/client relationship. Skinner cautions against the counselor becoming too important to the client.
Credits: B.F. Skinner on Counseling (00:43)
Credits: B.F. Skinner on Counseling
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