Cave of Bones (04:10)
40,000 years ago, two male hunters died in the forests of Romania. Their bones were found within a cave with no explanation to how they got there.
Modern Humans in Europe (03:04)
40,000 years ago, two male hunters died and were washed into a cave. Their bones are the first definitively modern humans found in Europe.
It was believed that when modern humans encountered Neanderthals they made them go extinct. It is now thought that they coexisted and mated.
Neanderthal Genome (03:49)
Svante Pääbo is studying the Neanderthal genome and connecting it to modern humans, but the DNA is in fragments.
Sequencing DNA (03:48)
The Neanderthal genome was sequenced and compared against modern day humans. All modern day humans share 1-3% of their DNA with Neanderthals, except for Africans.
Rhone Valley (02:05)
The key to the "new story" of modern humans could be in a cave in Southern France. This cave is full of artifacts that are 50,000 years old, including arrow points.
Stone Technology (02:55)
Archeologists tested the technology of ancient arrowheads by making stone arrowheads and shooting game.
Ludovic Slimak believes that modern humans were in Europe 50,000 years ago. The time between the modern human and Neanderthal evidence in the Rhone Valley is as little as a few weeks.
Neanderthal Technology (04:36)
A small piece of a rib bone was discovered in the Dordogne Valley. The bone was used to make leather waterproof, an adaptation made for the wet climate of Europe.
Neanderthal Cognition (02:37)
Neanderthals made tooth necklaces, a task previously thought to require more cognitive ability than they had.
Copying Technology (03:10)
Neanderthals copied technology from modern humans. They were attempting to catch up, but would fall behind modern humans.
Modern Human Technology (03:48)
Neanderthals were isolated to Europe whereas modern humans were developing everywhere. Artifacts found in the Danube river basin show that the modern humans took a great leap ahead of Neanderthals.
The Venus of Hohle Fels is the first depiction of a human in art. Found nearby were two figures of lion-man, showing human interaction.
Spread of Culture (03:46)
Modern humans were making musical instruments and sharing culture. The constant flow of humans out of Africa allowed culture to travel.
Homo Sapiens (03:40)
The Neanderthals were a small group that eventually went extinct due to being outnumbered by modern humans.
Credits: First Peoples: Europe (00:30)
Credits: First Peoples: Europe
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