Obedience Studies (01:16)
On August 7, 1961, Stanley Milgram conducted a dramatic experiment and made shocking discoveries. His obedience studies demonstrated that evil deeds did not have to come from evil people.
Banality of Evil (02:19)
Milgram's research begins as an attempt to gain a new perspective on the Holocaust. Political theorist Hannah Arend, is struck by the normalcy portrayed by Adolf Eichmann, architect of the Holocaust, during his trial in Jerusalem.
Stanley Milgram's Experiment (02:48)
The process of Milgram's experiment is explained. Psychiatrists predicted that only a psychopath would deliver the full, lethal, triple-x 450 volts. Sixty-five percent of normal participants gave the lethal shock, regardless of gender.
Agentic State (02:02)
In his 1974 book, "Obedience to Authority," Milgram explains this phenomenon. Milgram's theory goes unchallenged from almost 40 years.
Stanley Milgram's Prompts (01:56)
In Milgram's experiments, when participants hesitate over continuing, four carefully scripted prompts are used in escalating order. Every time the order prompt is given, people disobeyed.
Refusal to Follow Toxic Orders (01:49)
The voice of the experimenter wins out most of the time over the protest of the learner. In his text, "Obedience to Authority," Milgram lists 18 variances to the experiment.
Social Identity (03:42)
Modern social psychologists have been looking at how social identities may help explain obedience. This idea of identity is applied to Milgram's findings.
Adolf Eichmann's Idealism (03:13)
The theory of social identity is applied to the toxic obedience of the Holocaust. Eichmann claims he never realized what he was doing, a view Milgram agrees with. Current social psychologist question Eichmann's naiveté.
Credits: Beyond Milgram: Obedience and Identity (00:27)
Credits: Beyond Milgram: Obedience and Identity
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