Introduction: Intelligence Squared U.S. (04:12)
Robert Rosenkranz, chairman of Intelligence Squared U.S. Debate Forum, and moderator John Donvan introduce tonight's debate.
Debate "Housekeeping" (05:58)
Moderator John Donvan explains the format of the debate, introduces the panelists for each side, and instructs the audience in pre-debate voting.
For the Motion: Lawrence Krauss (07:47)
ASU Physics Professor, Lawrence Krauss says we cannot disprove God, but we can prove it is irrational to think that God exists. We have a plausible explanation for a universe coming from nothing.
Against the Motion: Ian Hutchinson (07:27)
MIT Nuclear Science Professor, Ian Hutchinson says science discovers the laws of the universe, but cannot prove these laws inviolable.
For the Motion: Michael Shermer (07:44)
Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptics Magazine, says that evolution wired our brains with a bias toward false connections. Civilizations turned to gods as moral enforcement.
Against the Motion: Dinesh D'Souza (07:23)
Author Dinesh D'Souza says the sociological basis for a belief has nothing to do with its truth. Atheists have to explain away the Big Bang Theory.
Summary of Arguments (01:49)
Moderator John Donvan summarizes the arguments from the first round on the proposition "Science Refutes God."
Do Miracles Violate the Laws of Physics? (03:00)
Hutchinson says the laws of physics are how God normally orders the universe, but miracles go against this order. Lawrence Krauss says science presumes universal laws and there is no evidence of miracles.
Do Miracles Violate the Laws of Physics? II (05:31)
D'Souza, Krauss, and Shermer argue Hume's rejection of the empirical proof of causation. Hutchinson states that science relies on reproducible events. D'Souza discusses the Big Bang Theory.
Do Miracles Violate the Laws of Physics? III (03:33)
Krauss argues that if the earth had stopped rotating, it would have stopped life; Hutchinson challenges the idea. Shermer argues that there has to be physical processes behind any "miracle."
Is the Universe Deterministic? (02:09)
Krauss says the laws of physics are deterministic under quantum physics. Hutchinson counters that the universe itself isn't deterministic.
What is Beyond Science? (01:32)
D'Souza says religion makes moral claims that aren't subject to science; science can show how morality arose, but not what is right.
Where does Morality Come From? (04:14)
Shermer says we base morality on reason. Krauss argues that scientific evidence influences moral beliefs. Hutchinson says science only helps us implement pre-existing ethics. D'Souza says we know right and wrong based on our conscience.
QA: Can a Scientist Believe in God? (02:04)
Krauss says a believer in God cannot be a good scientist unless he abandons belief while doing science. Hutchinson counters that belief in a creator is the historical assumption behind science.
QA: Presumptions Behind Science (03:39)
D'Souza says a presumption of modern science is that science explains the material world. He quotes Krauss's book to show that science only provides tentative explanations.
QA: Why Accept Christianity and Reject Other Religions? (04:09)
D'Souza says all religions are attempts to attain knowledge of god. He doesn't see non-Christian religions as entirely false.
QA: What do you Mean by God? (01:22)
Hutchinson says he believes in the god of Christianity. Krauss says he means a set of intelligent guiding purpose behind the universe.
QA: Biblical Morality (00:55)
An audience member asks how we can see the Bible as the source of morality. John Donvan rejects the question as off-topic.
QA: Universe from Nothing (02:32)
An audience member argues that belief in a universe coming from nothing requires a violation of the Law of Conservation. Krauss counters, saying there is zero total energy in our universe.
QA: Accounting for Orchid (02:07)
Shermer says the beauty of an orchid is our perception, but there are scientific reasons it looks the way it does. Krauss says scientists will soon be able to create life.
QA: What Would Change Your Mind? (01:29)
Krauss says it would take evidence to change his mind. Hutchison says he couldn't be persuaded that "science refutes God" unless we changed the meaning of science.
QA: Have Religious Explanations Gained on Scientific Explanations? (03:00)
D'Souza says the Bible does not offer proofs or scientific explanations, but revelations. Krauss says you can refute the Bible by showing that there were no days before light was created.
QA: Contributions of Theology (01:23)
Hutchinson says the Reformation brought the biggest transformation of learning in history. D'Souza says the Just War Theory is a theological contribution.
QA: How Can Science Tell What is Right? (01:36)
Krauss says we need to know consequences to know what is moral, and science gives us this knowledge.
QA: What About Spiritual Experiences? (04:20)
Shermer says neuroscience explains mystical experiences. D'Souza says most people have had a god experience. Krauss counters that belief in god is evolutionarily programmed.
QA: Why Believe in God? (01:01)
An audience member asks why, independent of religion, we should believe in God. John Donvan rejects the question as off-topic.
QA: Does Christianity Require a Leap of Faith? (03:28)
Hutchinson says we make decisions with incomplete evidence. D'Souza says where empirical evidence cannot go, faith is reasonable. Krauss agrees that evidence is incomplete, but in science, beliefs are falsifiable.
Closing Argument Against: Ian Hutchinson (02:20)
Hutchinson says science is not able to proclaim god's existence; claiming more for science than its competence warrants damages science.
Closing Argument For: Michael Shermer (02:17)
Shermer says studying psychology convinced him that people adopt religious beliefs for non-rational reasons. If god exists and interacts with nature, we should have scientific evidence for this.
Closing Argument Against: Dinesh D'Souza (02:16)
D'Souza says Darwin lost his faith because of his daughter's death, but did not think evolution disproved god.
Closing Argument For: Lawrence Krauss (02:26)
Krauss states that humans are evolutionarily programmed to impute intentions, meaning and purpose to things. We have eliminated many gods as we understand the order of the universe.
Vote Results (01:23)
Predebate: For: 37% - Against: 34% - Undecided: 29%
Postdebate: For: 50% - Against: 37% - Undecided: 12%
Additional Resources: Science Refutes God: A Debate (00:10)
Additional Resources: Science Refutes God: A Debate
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