U.K. Climate Change: the Last 120,000 Years (03:57)
Glaciers once existed on the U.K. uplands. Archaeologists use drones to gather evidence of warmer and colder periods in Victoria Cave. Hyena and rhinoceros fossils from 120,000 years ago indicate a savanna landscape. Bear skulls from 14,000 years ago demonstrate an ice age.
Glacier Formation (02:23)
Archaeologists explain warming and cooling periods over the last 120,000 years. Ice covered one third of the planet 22,000 years ago; the Yorkshire Dales resembled the Alps. Hear how snow transforms to glacial ice.
Glacier Movement (02:21)
The U.K. uplands were covered in ice sheets 22,000 years ago. Satellite images show how glaciers flow around obstacles and down river valleys. Learn about basal slippage and defamation, or internal flow.
Shaping the Landscape through Erosion (02:17)
Glaciers formed the Lake District topography. Scree in upland areas is formed by frost shattering. Rock fragments embedded in Alpine glaciers are forced into bedrock, eroding valleys in an abrasion process. Scratches, or striations, are visible on exposed surfaces.
Glacial Erosion Processes (03:42)
Learn about plucking, abrasion, roche moutonnées, hanging valleys, and depressions. Hear why misfit streams in U-shaped valleys are signs of glacial erosion. Overdeepening explains why the Lake District's lakes are ribbon shaped.
Corrie Formation (02:14)
Red Tarn is an example of a lake shaped by glacial erosion. Learn about the nivation process. Aretes form when two corries form side by side. Three corries combined can produce a pyramidal peak.
Shaping the Landscape through Deposition (02:42)
Glaciers have deposited material in the lowlands. Glaciologist Peter Wynn shows sediment layers in the Yorkshire Dales. Cobbles in boulder clay have sub-angular shapes and striations from traveling under the glacier.
Glacial Moraine (02:29)
View examples of lateral moraine terraces in Iceland and in Scotland's Glen Isla. Deposits laid down between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago in eastern England extended the coastline by 30 kilometers. Boulder clay is easily eroded by water; up to 20 meters can disappear in a single storm.
Yorkshire Dales Moraine (03:17)
Norber erratics are boulders deposited by glaciers on to different rock types. Low lying hummocks are glacial till deposited underneath the ice. Kettle hole lakes form when sediment insulates ice blocks after glaciers retreat.
Credits: Glaciation in the UK (00:24)
Credits: Glaciation in the UK
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